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India and Pakistan amidst the sea of Indus
One of the most prominent disputes between the two partitioned countries was Indus Waters dispute. All the five tributaries of Indus originate in India and flowed through Indian Territory in its upper reaches. When Pakistan found after partition, that the headwaters of the canals lied on the Indian side of the border between them, there were hysterical cries to take up arms and defend the right to water security. The World Bank came to rescue in form of arbiter, thrashing an agreement between the two countries. In 1959, Pakistan Prime Minister Ayub Khan met the Indian prime Minister and the two decided to settle the issues amicably with justice and fair play. The right conciliatory thinking seemed to have prevailed and the ice thawed. It was in such positive atmosphere that Jawaharlal Nehru decided to reciprocate the Pakistan Prime Minister visit in 1960 which was to be his last visit to Pakistan. The treaty was signed solemnly in presence of Pakistan PM, Ayub Khan, the Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru and the vice-President of World Bank, William Iliff. The treaty decided that after a transition period of ten years, extendable to 13 on Pakistan s request, the three western rivers, Indus, Jhelum and Chenab would be allocated exclusively to Pakistan except for some amount of limited usage in upper reaches by India, while the three eastern rivers, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej would be allocated exclusively to India. During the transitional period, Pakistan was to undertake a system of works to replace from western rivers such irrigation uses as had been met from eastern rivers till then while India would continue to supply water from eastern rivers as per the agreement. But ultimately, all our grandiose efforts came to a null with Pakistan demanding substantial concessions on Kashmir. And this is how ended another chapter in unfulfilled promises of cooperation between Indian and Pakistan.

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