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History and Problems of Philosophy: 

1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 

2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz):  Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom. 

3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism. 

4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God 

5.  Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism 

6.  Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing. 

7.  Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions. 

8.  Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language. 

9.  Phenomenology (Husserl):  Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism. 

10.   Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality. 

11.  Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons. 

12.  Cārvāka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities. 

13.  Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaňginaya; Bondage and Liberation. 

14.  Schools of Buddhism: Pratītyasamutpāda; Ksanikavada, Nairātmyavāda 

15. Nyāya- Vaiśesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramāna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation. 

16.  Sāmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation 

17.   Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya. 

18.  Mimāmsā: Theory of Knowledge 

19.  Schools of Vedānta: Brahman; Īśvara; Ātman; Jiva; Jagat; Māyā; Avidyā; Adhyāsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda 

20.   Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.  


Socio-Political Philosophy 

1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty. 

2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya. 

3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability 

4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy. 

5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism 

6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism. 

7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment. 

8. Development and Social Progress. 
9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment. 

10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar  

Philosophy of Religion: 

1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western). 

2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western). 

3. Problem of Evil. 

4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation. 

5. Reason, Revelation and Faith. 

6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western). 

7. Religion without God. 
8. Religion and Morality. 

9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth. 

10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive. 

IAS Syllabus For PT

•   IAS Syllabus For PT

IAS Syllabus For Mains

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