A surrogacy arrangement is the carrying of a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two main types of surrogacy, gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy.
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) estimates the practice of Commercial surrogacy in India will generate $2.3bn a year with nearly 20,000 such clinics operating across the country. However, there is no law to regulate the same. The Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill, 2013 has been pending for quite a while and it has not been presented in the Indian Parliament.
In 2002, the Supreme Court of India in the Manjis case (Japanese Baby) has held that commercial surrogacy is legal in India. , a U.N.-backed study estimates that the surrogacy business has raked in more than $400 million a year.
One of the main attractions of surrogacy in India is the price. In western countries surrogacy cost more than $90,000. In India the surrogates are paid between $6,500 and $7,500.
Tier 1 Capital (core capital) is a form of bank capital, that the bank possesses with itself for example common stock, preferred stock that is irredeemable and non-cumulative, and retained earnings etc.
Bank uses this capital for lending, trading and so on.
Some of the key components of Tier I capital are paid up equity share capital and disclosed reserves such as statutory reserves, general reserves, capital reserves (other than revaluation reserves) and any other type of instrument notified by the RBI as and when for inclusion in Tier I capital.
Tier 1 Capital is the most reliable form of capital.
The kafala system, also known as sponsorship system, is a system used to monitor the construction and domestic migrant laborers in Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and the small Arab States of the Persian Gulf. All the members of GCC (Gulf Co-operation Council) implement the Kafala System. The kafala system makes it difficult for workers to leave in situations where they are underpaid or abused.
Each GCC country manages its temporary migrant workforce through the sponsorship or Kafala system. Under this system, a local citizen or local company (the kafeel) must sponsor foreign workers in order for their work visas and residency to be valid. This means that an individuals right to work and legal presence in the host country is dependent on his or her employer, rendering him or her vulnerable to exploitation.